Cat feline microbiome itchy atopic dermatitis

The feline microbiome may be more linked to the development of atopic dermatitis than previously thought.

Has your cat been itching and scratching their skin more often than normal? If so, your furry friend may be suffering from feline dermatitis! Feline dermatitis is a general term that describes inflammation or irritation of the skin [1]. This condition can manifest in several ways, and has long been associated with allergies and environmental factors [2]. However, Next-Gen Sequencing (NGS) technology has allowed veterinarians and researchers to understand the more complex, multifactorial etiology of feline dermatitis that can be further complicated by the cat’s skin microbiome and secondary bacterial infections caused by excessive itching and inflammation.

Treatment for chronic itching can be frustrating, and while it may be tempting to find an at-home remedy for your cat, it is particularly important to visit a veterinarian in order to understand the underlying cause of your cat’s itching. While some studies have explored the efficacy of natural remedies for feline dermatitis, research is overwhelmingly scarce [3]. Moreover, without the guidance of a veterinarian, you may inadvertently expose your pet to natural treatments that do more harm than good!

What Causes Dermatitis in Cats?

The most common cause of feline dermatitis is fleas, while the second most common cause is environmental allergens [4]. Approximately 12.5% of cats suffer from allergen-induced dermatitis, with the most notable allergens being pollen, grass, fungi, mold, dust, and even household products (like perfume, cleaning products, and cigarette smoke) [4].

Up until the last decade, the relationship between skin dysbiosis and allergen sensitivity has not been studied much; however, the increasing integration of NGS in veterinary medicine has helped illuminate this complex relationship! Most notably, there are more bacterial species inhabiting the skin of cats than previously thought, and there is evidence of an association between dysbiosis and skin diseases like allergies and dermatitis [5]. Healthy cats had more Oxalobacteraceae and Porphyromondaceae, while allergic cats had more Staphylococcus [5]. In fact, a separate study found that antimicrobials from the healthy feline microbiome are able to inhibit skin infections by drug-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius [6]!

For any cat parent, identifying symptoms of pruritus is useful and can help your veterinarian identify the cause of your cat’s itching. Symptoms include:

  • Severe itching
  • Excessive scratching
  • Hair pulling
  • Skin redness
  • Skin swelling
  • Hair loss
  • Lesions
  • Small bumps on skin
  • Raw skin

Allergic dermatitis symptoms cat feline itchy

The image above depicts a cat suffering from allergic dermatitis. Notice the skin lesion and small bumps on the skin.

Harmful Effects of Avoiding Medical Treatment For Your Cat

When considering integrating herbal remedies into your cat’s care, it is important to note that both herbalists and scientists understand the scarcity in research regarding treatment efficacy. In fact, certain herbs actually induce adverse effects that may harm your cat and/or cause a possible infection to proliferate. Essential oils like cinnamon, citrus, clove, eucalyptus, peppermint, pine tea tree, and several more are all poisonous to cats!

Beyond accidentally giving your cat a natural remedy they may be allergic to, reluctance to simply visit a veterinarian causes a delay in care and may exacerbate your cat’s condition. For example, failure to treat the root cause of your cat’s dermatitis may result in secondary bacterial infections, which often occur in the upper layers of the skin and hair follicles. These infections are frequently triggered by an overgrowth of normal dermal flora including most commonly by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, along with Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas sp [7]. Infection severity ranges widely, from simple infections to complex infections, and from surface to superficial or deep infections [7].

It is worth noting that visiting a veterinarian before your cat’s condition progresses to a condition a secondary bacterial infection may end up being more cost-effective. Progression of a dermatitis skin condition to severe bacterial infection is also painful for your cat, and so consultation with a veterinarian is recommended.

Should I Go To The Veterinarian For My Cat’s Itching?

Yes. If you think your cat is suffering from itchy skin, please consult with a veterinarian as soon as possible. As has been previously mentioned, the potentially multifaceted nature of your cat’s itchy skin results in a complex diagnostics/treatment process that is only further complicated by delaying care. Consequently, having a solid understanding of the potential bacterial presentations in your cat is crucial.

Increasing contemporary evidence has begun to acknowledge the shortcomings of culture-based diagnostic testing, as the “microbiome is much more complex than has been identified with previous culture-based studies” [8]. Several studies have revealed unculturable bacteria have been underestimated, while bacteria with high proliferation rates are possibly overestimated [9]. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies allow metagenomics analysis and have provided exciting and practical opportunities for dysbiotic skin interventions.

The MiDOG All-in-One Microbial Test utilizes the NGS technology to detect and quantify all microbial DNA through untargeted and comprehensive sequencing and quantitative comparisons to reference databases. Considering shortcomings in culture-based diagnostics, the MiDOG NGS technology provides a useful opportunity to shed light on the microbial makeup of your cat’s skin microbiome for clinical application. The MiDOG microbiome test is a microbial identification test grounded on scientific research that provides veterinarians DNA evidence for the guided treatment of feline skin infections.

 

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Find out if your vet uses MiDOG before you book your next appointment!

References

[1] Moriello, K. (2018). Dermatitis and Dermatologic Problems in Cats – Cat Owners – MSD Veterinary Manual. Retrieved 26 May 2022, from https://www.merckvetmanual.com/cat-owners/skin-disorders-of-cats/dermatitis-and-dermatologic-problems-in-cats

[2] Gedon, N., & Mueller, R. (2018). Atopic dermatitis in cats and dogs: a difficult disease for animals and owners. Clinical And Translational Allergy, 8(1). doi: 10.1186/s13601-018-0228-5

[3] Mueller, R., Nuttall, T., Prost, C., Schulz, B., & Bizikova, P. (2021). Treatment of the feline atopic syndrome – a systematic review. Veterinary Dermatology, 32(1), 43. doi: 10.1111/vde.12933

[4] Bajwa J. (2018). Atopic dermatitis in cats. The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne, 59(3), 311–313.

[5] Older, C., Diesel, A., Patterson, A., Meason-Smith, C., Johnson, T., & Mansell, J. et al. (2017). The feline skin microbiota: The bacteria inhabiting the skin of healthy and allergic cats. PLOS ONE, 12(6), e0178555. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178555

[6] O’Neill, A., Worthing, K., Kulkarni, N., Li, F., Nakatsuji, T., & McGrosso, D. et al. (2021). Antimicrobials from a feline commensal bacterium inhibit skin infection by drug-resistant S. pseudintermedius. Elife, 10. doi: 10.7554/elife.66793

[7] Titeux, E., Gilbert, C., Briand, A., & Cochet-Faivre, N. (2018). From Feline Idiopathic Ulcerative Dermatitis to Feline Behavioral Ulcerative Dermatitis: Grooming Repetitive Behaviors Indicators of Poor Welfare in Cats. Frontiers In Veterinary Science, 5. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00081

[8] Korbelik, J., Singh, A., Rousseau, J., & Weese, J. S. (2019). Characterization of the otic bacterial microbiota in dogs with otitis externa compared to healthy individuals. Veterinary Dermatology, 30(3), 228-e70. https://doi.org/10.1111/vde.12734

[9] Tang, S., Prem, A., Tjokrosurjo, J., Sary, M., Van Bel, M., & Rodrigues-Hoffmann, A. et al. (2020). The canine skin and ear microbiome: A comprehensive survey of pathogens implicated in canine skin and ear infections using a novel next-generation-sequencing-based assay. Veterinary Microbiology, 247, 108764. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108764


Categories: Cats, Next-Gen DNA Sequencing Technology, Skin Health, Veterinary Best Practices

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Validated by Veterinarians

“Clients expect their veterinarians to stay up to date on all matters that affect the health and well being of their non-human family members. The current technique that we have used to determine the presence and antibiotic sensitivity of organisms causing disease in our pets is over a century old.

With the emergence of dangerous antibacterial resistance, it is critical that veterinarians are able to offer laser focused diagnostics and treatment. MiDog enables us to offer care that exceeds the typical standard of care.”

Bernadine Cruz, DVM, Laguna Hills Animal Hospital Laguna Woods, CA

“I love the absolute abundance and comparing the fungal with bacterial infection. I do not worry as much about getting a false negative urinary infection reading as I do with traditional urine cultures. Several times the same urine would culture negative but MiDOG would detect pathogens.”

Michael Morgan, DVMQuail Animal Hospital, Tustin, CA

“The MiDOG All-in-One Test is amazing, I would use it instead of culture and sensitivity.  Such rapid and detailed results, I will reach for MiDOG before culture next time!

Thank you very much MiDOG, for sharing the opportunity to try your technology.”

Martha Smith-Blackmore, DVM, President of Forensic Veterinary Investigations, LLC – Boston, MA

The MiDOG All-in-One Microbial Test is our new gold standard of pathogen identification. The results are so accurate and valuable – especially with assessing both bacterial and fungal infections with the same sample.

Thank you MiDOG!”

Kathy Wentworth, DVM, Diplomate ABVP Canine and Feline Practice – PetPoint Medical Center, Irvine, CA

“The MiDOG staff was extremely helpful and supportive.”

Cathy Curtis, DVM – London, UK

“I have had great results using the MiDOG® Test. Compared to traditional culture tests, I am better able to target the treatment for dogs because the MiDOG® Test is so sensitive that it identifies all pathogens including bacteria and fungi, as well as antibiotic sensitivity.

The cost and turnaround time are about the same as a culture test, but I get much more data. The test has great performance and I believe the NGS technology will be a game changer for veterinarians treating dogs with lesions or other infections.”

Michael Kavanagh, DVM, Practice owner – Saddleback Animal Hospital, Tustin, CA

“It’s helpful to have an NGS spectrum because it gives you a broader insight of what’s happening and what might be going on.”

Richard Harvey BVSc DVD DipECVD PhD FRSB FRCVS – European Specialist in Veterinary Dermatology – Head of Dermatology, Willows Veterinary Centre & Referral Service – Solihull, England UK

“I have been using MiDog for over 4 years now and exclusively as my test of choice for all cultures for 3 years.  It is so great to submit a culture and feel confident there will be a result when it comes back, especially for urine cultures.  The reports were intimidating at first because they contain so much information.  After the first few, I am now quickly able to glance over it and pick out the highlights.  I can then come back later and pour over all the details.  I have been extremely pleased with my patients’ results using the test as well.  I don’t envision ever going back to traditional culture and susceptibilities again.”

Brian M. Urmson, DVM, Columbiana Veterinary Associates

“As an exotic veterinarian, there are numerous tests we have to consider to check specific bacterial and fungal organisms based on the species. MiDOG eliminates the need for many of these separate samples and provides definitive results quickly to help us treat our patients more efficiently and effectively. The lab is wonderful to work with and has never rejected our samples- they even processed a lizard toe we amputated and determined the cause of skin infection.”

Dr. Melissa Giese, Chicago Exotics Animal Hospital

“MiDOG’s diagnostic approach offers the unique ability to identify pathogens that evade traditional culture and sensitivity testing. I have found that adding a molecular based testing approach in the form of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) from MiDOG to my routine diagnostic cultures can be extremely helpful in the identification and diagnosis of uncommon pathogens in veterinary medicine.”

Dr. Wayne Rosenkrantz, Animal Dermatology Clinic – Tustin

“She [Dr. Krumbeck] really did a great job of making complicated concepts accessible and demonstrating the value of your services. I’m really looking forward to working with MiDOG on my research project!”

Dr. Yaicha Peters, Animal Dermatology Clinic – San Diego

“As a proud collaborator with MiDOG, I deeply appreciate their dedication to fostering partnerships between industry and veterinary experts. Their commitment to enhancing diagnostic quality for veterinarians is commendable. In my experience, their support has been invaluable, earning them a ‘Double A+, Triple Star’ rating. Their assistance has been faultless, contributing significantly to the success of my projects and studies. I eagerly anticipate our continued collaboration.”

Dr. Richard Harvey, BVSc DVD DipECVD PhD FRSB FRCVS; European Specialist in Veterinary Dermatology

“We’re seeing that, if we prescribe too many antibiotics or they’re taken too frequently, animals are developing inappropriate or pathogenic strains of bacteria. We’re also seeing that our antibiotics are just not working against them anymore… It’s a good example of why we need better diagnostic testing, like MiDOG, so that we’re selecting the correct antibiotic every time our patients have an infection.”

Dr. Alissa Rexo, DVM, CVA, DACVD, Mid-Atlantic Veterinary Dermatology

“The NGS technique as offered by MiDOG is wonderful because pathogens like Melissococcus plutonius, for example, are difficult to grow and keep alive in the laboratory. A standard laboratory cannot truly examine or even properly diagnose this pathogen in bee hives at this time. But with NGS, we can reliably diagnose it.”

Dr. Joerg Mayer, Entomologist and Microbiologist at the University of Georgia

“For me, as a clinician and as a researcher, I see the immense value in the product [the All-in-One Test]. I have had great success using MiDOG clinically, including identifying Mycoplasma in a 24 year old pigeon, a Nannizziopsis spp in a ball python from a large pet distributor, Mycoplasma and Fusobacterium necrophorum co-infection in a peacock, and to identify an abnormal gut GI in a technician’s dog that tested negative for everything else (but we were able to establish what was abnormal, and work toward fixing it).”

Dr. Jeremy Rayl – Veterinarian, Block House Creek Animal Hospital, Cedar Park, Texas