Candidiasis in Birds

Has your pet bird not been strutting their feathers like they normally do? While dull plumage can indicate several ailments, one notable concern is avian candidiasis. Candida infections are most commonly caused by the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans, which most frequently impacts the gastrointestinal tract [1]. Because birds on broad-spectrum antibiotics are most at risk for candidiasis, it is important to get your pet seen at a vet immediately to avoid further complications [1].

Avian candidiasis is uncomfortable for your feathery friend, with treatment benefiting from early intervention. If you suspect your bird has candidiasis, bring your pet to your exotic veterinarian as soon as possible.

What is Avian Candidiasis?

While the incidence rate of avian candidiasis in pet birds is debated, one study found that approximately 9.2% of sampled birds tested positive for Candida albicans in their cloaca [2]. Candidiasis is predominantly caused by the Candida albicans, which is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast [3]. Additionally, other species such as C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and Hansenula spp. can cause avian candidiasis [1]. These opportunistic yeasts most commonly impact immunocompromised birds; moreover, candidiasis is most common in cockatiels. Because these yeasts are capable of persisting in your pet’s environment even after your bird is treated, providing proper standards of avian husbandry in low-stress environments is key in preventing infection.

Clinical presentation of avian candidiasis is influenced by bird species, stress, comorbidities, and locality of the infection [1]. While candidiasis most often impacts the gastrointestinal tract, in advanced stages the pathogenic yeast can invade other parts of the bird’s body, although this is less common. Symptoms include but are not limited to:

· Anorexia

· Crop stasis

· White plaques in the oral cavity

· Regurgitation

· Weight loss

· Dull plumage

The fungi Candida albicans, which causes candidiasis

The fungi Candida albicans, which causes candidiasis

Avian Candidiasis Treatment

Considering poor animal husbandry is one of the main causes of candidiasis infections in birds, your exotic pet veterinarian will help you identify ways to improve your feathery friend’s environment and eliminate the environmental source of the fungal infection. Your exotic pet veterinarian will test your feathery friend to determine the bacteria and/or fungus causing your bird’s infection, and will create a treatment plan based on these findings.

Ultimately, prevention is best. Your exotic bird veterinarian can help you identify possible lifestyle changes you and your bird can make to improve their quality of life and lessen the risk of recurrent candidiasis infection. This entails understanding the exact pathogen that is impacting your bird, with modern technological advances allowing for more targeted clinical diagnostic interventions.

Diagnosing Avian Candidiasis

Diagnosis of avian candidiasis is particularly complex, largely because it is normally secondary to other infections. Additionally, Candida albicans “displays high degree of genetic diversity across isolates, notably variations in the distribution of heterozygous polymorphisms along the genome” [4]. In other words, this makes it difficult to use normal genotyping methods to identify the pathogenic strain. This is particularly important, as current molecular typing has uncovered 19 clades of C. albicans strains [4]. This is clinically relevant, considering approximately 7% of all Candida spp. samples tested at the CDC are resistant the fluconazole, which is commonly used to treat antifungal infections such as candidiasis [5]. Consequently, accurate diagnostics are essential to identify the best mode of treatment for your bird.

Fortunately, Next-Gen sequencing (NGS) has increasingly helped researchers and veterinarians characterize avian microbiota. A study aimed at assessing the avian gut microbiome and the impact of yeast based prebiotic type compounds as potential feed additives using NGS techniques has reaffirmed the importance of NGS approaches in avian diagnostics [6]. This research indicates the clinical applicability of using genomic sequencing to identify and analyze the avian gut microbiome more effectively. The fast turnaround time when compared to culture-based diagnostics makes NGS particularly promising for potential intervention for sick birds.

Despite its name, the MiDOG All-in-One Microbial Test may provide the answer to the diagnostic conundrum that avian candidiasis poses on your feathery friend. Utilizing NGS technology to detect and quantify all microbial DNA through untargeted and comprehensive sequencing and quantitative comparisons to reference databases, the MiDOG NGS technology provides a useful opportunity to shed light on the microbial makeup of your bird’s infection for clinical application. The MiDOG microbiome test is a microbial identification test grounded on scientific research that provides veterinarians DNA evidence for the guided treatment of bird infections, such as candidiasis.

Learn more tips in this extensive guide to bird care.

Find out if your vet uses MiDOG before you book your next appointment!

For health-related questions about your bird or other exotic pet, reach out to a veterinarian that specializes in exotic pets.

  1. Hoppes, S. M. (2022, October). Mycotic diseases of pet birds – exotic and laboratory animals. Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved from
  2. Cafarchia, C., Camarda, A., Romito, D., Campolo, M., Quaglia, N. C., Tullio, D., & Otranto, D. (2006). Occurrence of yeasts in cloacae of migratory birds. Mycopathologia, 161(4), 229–234.
  3. Sidrim, J. J., Maia, D. C., Brilhante, R. S., Soares, G. D., Cordeiro, R. A., Monteiro, A. J., & Rocha, M. F. (2010). Candida species isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus): In vitro antifungal susceptibility profile and phospholipase activity. Veterinary microbiology, 145(3-4), 324–328.
  4. Domán, M., Makrai, L., Lengyel, G., Kovács, R., Majoros, L., & Bányai, K. (2021). Molecular Diversity and Genetic Relatedness of Candida albicans Isolates from Birds in Hungary. Mycopathologia, 186(2), 237–244.
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, May 18). Antifungal resistance in candida. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from,Candida%20glabrata%2C%20and%20Candida%20parapsilosis.
  6. Roto, S. M., Rubinelli, P. M., & Ricke, S. C. (2015). An introduction to the avian gut microbiota and the effects of yeast-based prebiotic-type compounds as potential feed additives. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 2.

Categories: Birds/Parrots, Exotic Pets, Next-Gen DNA Sequencing Technology, Pet Health, Safety and Wellness

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Validated by Veterinarians

“Clients expect their veterinarians to stay up to date on all matters that affect the health and well being of their non-human family members. The current technique that we have used to determine the presence and antibiotic sensitivity of organisms causing disease in our pets is over a century old.

With the emergence of dangerous antibacterial resistance, it is critical that veterinarians are able to offer laser focused diagnostics and treatment. MiDog enables us to offer care that exceeds the typical standard of care.”

Bernadine Cruz, DVM, Laguna Hills Animal Hospital Laguna Woods, CA

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Michael Morgan, DVMQuail Animal Hospital, Tustin, CA

“The MiDOG All-in-One Test is amazing, I would use it instead of culture and sensitivity.  Such rapid and detailed results, I will reach for MiDOG before culture next time!

Thank you very much MiDOG, for sharing the opportunity to try your technology.”

Martha Smith-Blackmore, DVM, President of Forensic Veterinary Investigations, LLC – Boston, MA

The MiDOG All-in-One Microbial Test is our new gold standard of pathogen identification. The results are so accurate and valuable – especially with assessing both bacterial and fungal infections with the same sample.

Thank you MiDOG!”

Kathy Wentworth, DVM, Diplomate ABVP Canine and Feline Practice – PetPoint Medical Center, Irvine, CA

“The MiDOG staff was extremely helpful and supportive.”

Cathy Curtis, DVM – London, UK

“I have had great results using the MiDOG® Test. Compared to traditional culture tests, I am better able to target the treatment for dogs because the MiDOG® Test is so sensitive that it identifies all pathogens including bacteria and fungi, as well as antibiotic sensitivity.

The cost and turnaround time are about the same as a culture test, but I get much more data. The test has great performance and I believe the NGS technology will be a game changer for veterinarians treating dogs with lesions or other infections.”

Michael Kavanagh, DVM, Practice owner – Saddleback Animal Hospital, Tustin, CA

“It’s helpful to have an NGS spectrum because it gives you a broader insight of what’s happening and what might be going on.”

Richard Harvey BVSc DVD DipECVD PhD FRSB FRCVS – European Specialist in Veterinary Dermatology – Head of Dermatology, Willows Veterinary Centre & Referral Service – Solihull, England UK

“I have been using MiDog for over 4 years now and exclusively as my test of choice for all cultures for 3 years.  It is so great to submit a culture and feel confident there will be a result when it comes back, especially for urine cultures.  The reports were intimidating at first because they contain so much information.  After the first few, I am now quickly able to glance over it and pick out the highlights.  I can then come back later and pour over all the details.  I have been extremely pleased with my patients’ results using the test as well.  I don’t envision ever going back to traditional culture and susceptibilities again.”

Brian M. Urmson, DVM, Columbiana Veterinary Associates

“As an exotic veterinarian, there are numerous tests we have to consider to check specific bacterial and fungal organisms based on the species. MiDOG eliminates the need for many of these separate samples and provides definitive results quickly to help us treat our patients more efficiently and effectively. The lab is wonderful to work with and has never rejected our samples- they even processed a lizard toe we amputated and determined the cause of skin infection.”

Dr. Melissa Giese, Chicago Exotics Animal Hospital

“MiDOG’s diagnostic approach offers the unique ability to identify pathogens that evade traditional culture and sensitivity testing. I have found that adding a molecular based testing approach in the form of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) from MiDOG to my routine diagnostic cultures can be extremely helpful in the identification and diagnosis of uncommon pathogens in veterinary medicine.”

Dr. Wayne Rosenkrantz, Animal Dermatology Clinic – Tustin

“She [Dr. Krumbeck] really did a great job of making complicated concepts accessible and demonstrating the value of your services. I’m really looking forward to working with MiDOG on my research project!”

Dr. Yaicha Peters, Animal Dermatology Clinic – San Diego

“As a proud collaborator with MiDOG, I deeply appreciate their dedication to fostering partnerships between industry and veterinary experts. Their commitment to enhancing diagnostic quality for veterinarians is commendable. In my experience, their support has been invaluable, earning them a ‘Double A+, Triple Star’ rating. Their assistance has been faultless, contributing significantly to the success of my projects and studies. I eagerly anticipate our continued collaboration.”

Dr. Richard Harvey, BVSc DVD DipECVD PhD FRSB FRCVS; European Specialist in Veterinary Dermatology

“We’re seeing that, if we prescribe too many antibiotics or they’re taken too frequently, animals are developing inappropriate or pathogenic strains of bacteria. We’re also seeing that our antibiotics are just not working against them anymore… It’s a good example of why we need better diagnostic testing, like MiDOG, so that we’re selecting the correct antibiotic every time our patients have an infection.”

Dr. Alissa Rexo, DVM, CVA, DACVD, Mid-Atlantic Veterinary Dermatology

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Dr. Joerg Mayer, Entomologist and Microbiologist at the University of Georgia

“For me, as a clinician and as a researcher, I see the immense value in the product [the All-in-One Test]. I have had great success using MiDOG clinically, including identifying Mycoplasma in a 24 year old pigeon, a Nannizziopsis spp in a ball python from a large pet distributor, Mycoplasma and Fusobacterium necrophorum co-infection in a peacock, and to identify an abnormal gut GI in a technician’s dog that tested negative for everything else (but we were able to establish what was abnormal, and work toward fixing it).”

Dr. Jeremy Rayl – Veterinarian, Block House Creek Animal Hospital, Cedar Park, Texas